Gynecomastia is a condition where breast tissue is swollen in boys or men. This is caused due to the hormonal imbalance. All boys are born with a small amount of breast tissue, though it is not as much as in women. The hormones responsible for this are estrogen and testosterone. Testosterone is a hormone that guides sexual growth in boys during puberty. But they also have estrogen which helps girls in their sexual growth. When the estrogen levels are high in boys it causes a swelling in the breast tissue. Gynecomastia can affect both or one breast. As a result of normal changes in hormonal levels, newborns, boys going through puberty as well as older men may develop gynecomastia.


Although there are body changes such as aging and puberty, few more conditions which cause gynecomastia are;


It is a condition that results from having less nutrition or excess nutrition.
It is of two types; Under nutrition – the diet which results in deficiency of protein, vitamin, calories, micro nutrients and minerals.
Over nutrition – the diet which contains over consumption of certain nutrients, which results in obesity.

  • Excess alcohol use
  • Disorders of the testes (male sex organs) including infection, trauma or inborn disorders,
  • Recreational drug use Avoid consuming illegal drugs.
  • Aging
  • Chronic kidney failure
  • Cirrhosis of liver
  • Testicular cancer
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Hypogonadism
  • Tumors


Two gynecomastia surgery options are:


Liposuction is a surgical treatment that helps remove the excessive breast fat. This technique is also used when there is excessive fat tissue. Liposuction is performed under local anesthesia and involves a small incision on each side of the chest. Through these incisions the cosmetic surgeons will remove excess fat present in the chest area. Depending on the conditions and your needs the surgeon will evaluate and continue with the procedure.

When it comes to the removal of glandular tissue, a technique within liposuction is used for this purpose. This technique is known as Excision Technique. This technique is used for severe cases of gynecomastia to achieve optimal results. Generally, when there is stretched skin or sagging skin around the breasts this approach will be needed. This tissue excision procedure involves the removal of a great amount of glandular tissue or the skin around the breasts that cannot be treated with liposuction alone. The surgery is done based on the length and location of the incisions.

The recovery process for both of the surgical procedures is same, it is common for patients to experience some swelling and soreness.


Mastectomy is the surgical removal of one or both the breasts. A simple procedure involves the removal of breast tissue, nipple, areola and skin. The surgery is performed under general anesthesia. Depending on the procedure, the unrequired breast tissue and other parts are also removed.

Mastectomy doesn’t remove fatty deposits, so if you have swollen breasts because of fatty deposits then even liposuction would have to be performed.


Some men have male breast ptosis which could be unattractive. This can be caused due to age or weight loss. While exercise and body building are the best remedies, they might not be suitable for all. Cosmetic surgery can be of help for such men.
Male mastopexy in other words termed as gynecomastia; aims at reshaping and raising the breasts higher on the chest thereby creating a firmer look.
This gynecomastia procedure is usually performed as an outpatient procedure under general anesthesia.

  • The procedure involves surgically re-suspending the sagging tissues between the skin and the chest muscles. This sculpting is done through an incision made on each breast at the edge of the areola.
  • Most common techniques of breast lifts are vertical scar breast lifts where the incision is vertical and doughnut mastopexy also called a peri-areolar or Benelli lift, where the incision is made around the areola.


  • Week 1 – you are likely to experience some bruising along the incisions, which will diminish by the end of the 1st week.
  • Week 2 – Sutures will be removed. Bruising, pain and swelling are markedly reduced. And you will be able to return to work during the 2nd week.


It is imperative to follow all post-operative care instructions given by your surgeon to reduce risk of complication and to ensure a good result.

  • Do not lift anything above your head for three to four weeks following the gynecomastia surgery, and avoid lifting heavy weights for four to six weeks.
  • Ensure that you sleep on your back for several weeks post surgery.


  • Patients could consider a Mastopexy (gynecomastia) surgery if they have drooping breasts caused due to massive weight loss or age
  • Patients should be in good health and should not suffer from diabetes or heart conditions.