It is also a surgery that operates with specialized microscopes and precision instrumentation to perform intricate operations. This procedure utilizes magnification up to fifty times that produced by the naked eye.This procedure helps to repair transected blood vessels and nerves within a perfect 1mm in diameter.

This procedure has given the potential to restore form and function to individuals who are impaired by cancer, trauma and congenital differences by re-establishing continuity and blood flow to even small cut off nerves and vessels in the body.

There are major advancements that have been witnessed through reconstructive microsurgery, few advancements are the hand and face transplantation. Severely injured people have found a new lease on life as few conditions cannot be solved through traditional techniques.



It is a procedure that is done to restore the look and feel of the breast after mastectomy.

Types of breast reconstruction 

  • Autologous tissue-based reconstruction

It is also called autogenous reconstruction. To perform a breast shape this procedure uses tissue – skin, fat and sometimes a muscle from another place of your body. The tissue used in this process is called a flap. It usually comes from the belly, buttocks, the back or even inner thighs to create the reconstructed breast. From the original blood vessels, tissue is completely separated and moved to its new place called as free flap (OR) the tissue can remain attached to its blood vessel and moved under the skin to your chest called as pedicled clap, either way the tissue is formed into shape of a breast and later stitched.

Using a tissue from someplace on your body is popular because it usually lasts a lifetime. Tissue on inner thighs, buttocks, and belly is very similar to breast tissue. It is a good substitute and can feel as natural as it can be. Those women who do not haveenough skin to cover an implant this procedure is quite suitable for them.

  • Implant reconstruction

Initially a tissue is placed under the pectoralis muscle (a muscle under the chest area). Then saline is filled until proper level of volume is achieved. It is a simplest and takes the shortest operative time.


The time to recover completely is depended on the kind of reconstruction done. Most women feel better in weeks and few take couple of months to get a complete recovery. Talking to the doctor and understanding how to take care of yourself is important as every individual has a different body type.


Few side effects that are seen during, soon or after the surgery:

  • Blood clots
  • Bleeding
  • Problems with the anesthesia
  • Wound healing problems
  • Infection at the surgery site
  • Extreme tiredness


Head and neck reconstruction is done when tumors affect the area. Patients will know it when they find it difficult to speak and swallow. The main aim of reconstructive surgeryis to achieve best possible results as possible.


The surgery may take 4-12 hours; it is done under general anesthesia. The surgical repairs involve areas such as brain, nerves, eyes, bones and skin of the face. During the surgery tissues are moved and blood vessels and nerves are reconnected using microscopic surgery techniques. To fill in spaces of head and neck the pieces of bone graft are taken from ribs, pelvis and skin. Small metal screws or implants maybe used to hold the bones in place. Now, to cover the holes flaps maybe taken from hand, buttocks, thigh or chest wall.


Though technology has made every surgery reliable, risk is a part of it. The few side effects during surgery are:

  • Blood loss
  • Damage to organs
  • Adverse reactions to medications

After surgery:

  • Blood loss or clots
  • Pain or discomfort
  • Infections
  • Swelling
  • Breathing problems


Complete recovery may take upto 6 weeks without any complication. With complications you might stay in the hospital under doctors supervision for a little longer.


It is a technique that refers to the function and shape or a length of a bone or an arm is altered either because of an injury or a problem from birth. This procedure reconstructs a bone or a joint using external fixator or a frame. This external fixator is attached to the bone by wires and screws.


In patients with cancer, the surgeon will first remove the tumor and the margin or normal tissue around it. Later your surgeon will reconstruct the bone or joint by using a bone from a donor or patients own bone. The surgery takes up to two to eight hours.

Five possible options are there for limb reconstruction surgery.

  • A procedure that involvesattaching an external fixator or frame to a limb to correct it or slowly lengthen it is called Gradual limb lengthening.
  • A simple surgery that helps remove cartilage from a longer limb to allow the shorter limb to catch up over time with normal growth is known as
  • A surgery that involves attaching a temporary metal plate to one side of the bone to halt its growth while the other side of the bone continues to grow this procedure is known as
  • Holding a bone in place with permanent metal plates, rods and screws by dividing and repositioning it is known as Acute Deformity Correction.
  • Limb shortening is a surgery to remove a part of a bone of a longer limb. This procedure is used only if it has a 2-5cm difference in the limb length.


There are very few risks or side effects associated with this kind of surgery.

  • Infection
  • Excessive blood loss
  • Development of blood clots

Maybe overtime there will be need of few joint replacements, metal plates, screws or rods can loosen and may need a revision.


The length of recovery depends on the area and type of surgery performed. It depends on every individual. Normally, after a surgery it take from 6 weeks to 6 months for total recovery.